Improving the Quality of Feed Ingredients Using Enzymes

Kiki Haetami(1*), Abun Abun(2),


(1) Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjajaran
(2) Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Commercial feed contributes to the operational costs of aquaculture production activities. On the other hand, making your feed requires formulation and availability of raw materials in maintained quantity and quality. Local feed raw materials can be used as alternative ingredients. Still, one of the obstacles is several limiting factors, such as crude fiber and the binding of some essential nutrients, such as protein and minerals. Hence, nutrient utilization is low and has a direct impact on growth. Adding feed additives as sources of enzymes is considered to help speed up the digestive process so sufficient nutrients are available for growth and survival. Enzymes break down large molecules such as crude fiber starch, increasing protein and fat into forms easily digested and absorbed by fish. This paper aims to review the use of enzymes to improve the quality of fish feed ingredients. The method used is Literature Review. Improving the quality of feed raw materials with the help of enzymes can increase the quality of fish feed ingredients. Application of enzymes in fish feed as additional feed ingredients (feed additives) through the addition of commercial enzymes, enzymes from plant or animal extracts, and microbial enzymes


Keywords


Enzyme; Feed quality; Fish feed; Raw materials

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abun, A., Rusmana, D., Widjastuti, T., Haetami, K. (2021). PrebioticsBLS from encapsulated of extract of shrimp waste bioconversion on feed supplement quality and its implication of metabolizable energy and digestibility at Indonesian local chicken. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 49(1), 295-303.

Almaududy, M. (2006). Pengaruh pemberian pakan substitusi pada Tubifex sp. terhadap pertumbuhan, konversi pakan, dan sintasan benih ikan balashark (Balantiocheilus melapnoterus Bleeker). Skripsi. Fakultas Biologi. Universitas Nasional Jakarta

Anggani, D., Rusliadi, R., Putra, I. (2021). Penambahan Enzim phytase pada pakan terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelulushidupan ikan nilem (Osteochillus hasselti) dengan sistem resirkulasi. Jurnal Ilmu Perairan (Aquatic Science), 9(3): 207-214.

Chaplin, M.F., Bucke, C. (1990). Enzyme technology. Cambridge University. Press. Cambridge, Great Britain.

Chaudary, A., Hussain, Z., Muhammad, A.A., Alorabi, M., Sarwar, N., Abdul, R.R., Ahmad, N.K., Faiz, M.K., Minahal, Q., Ali, H.E., Ramli, S., Tan, A.K.Z., Alhazmi, A., Mohammed, S.B.A., Qamer, S., Alkafafy, M. (2021). Impact of Bacillus subtilis supplemented feed on growth and biochemical constituents in Labeo rohita fingerlings. Journal of King Saud University – Science, 33(8): 1-11

Chrisdiana, G., Rachmawati, D., Samidjan, I. (2015). Pengaruh penambahan enzim fitase dalam pakan buatan terhadap efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan dan laju pertumbuhan spesifik ikan kerapu cantang (Epinephelus sp). Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology, 4(4): 43-50.

Cortezi, M., Cilli, E.M., Contiero, J. (2008). Bacillus amyloliquefaciens: A new keratinolytic feather-degrading bacteria. Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 2(1): 170-177.

D'Abramo, L. (2021). Sistem produksi pakan akuakultur dan akuakultur berkelanjutan yang terkena dampak tantangan ketahanan pangan global dan perubahan iklim. Tajuk Rencana: Jurnal Masyarakat Akuakultur Dunia, 52: 1162 – 1167.

Drew, M.D., Racz, V.J., Gauthier, R., Thiessen, D.L. (2005). Effect of adding Protease to coextruded flax: pea or canola: pea products on nutritional digestibility and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Anim. Feed Sci.Tech., 119: 117-128.

Elyana P. (2011). Pengaruh penambahan ampas kelapa hasil fermentasi (Aspergillus oryzae) dalam pakan komersil terhadap pertumbuhan ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus). Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta.

Fahmi, Z., Yuliana, Y., Kasim, N.A. (2021). Pengelolaan pemberian pakan pada pembesaran ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus) di CV. Berkat Jaya Samudra Manado Sulawesi Utara. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Politeknik Pertanian Negeri Pangkajene Kepulauan: 780-788.

Fitriliyani, I. (2010). Pengaruh penambahan ekstrak enzim cairan rumen domba pada komponen serat kasar, kandungan asam fitat tepung daun lamtoro gung (Leucaena leucocephala). Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia, 9(1): 30-37.

Kallau, M. (2020). Peningkatan bioavaibilitas pakan ikan berbasis nabati dengan agen fermentasi. Partner, 23(1): 463 - 475

Khodijah, D., Rachmawati, D., Pinandoyo. (2015). Performa pertumbuhan benih ikan lele sangkuriang (Clarias gariepinus) melalui penambahan enzim papain dalam pakan buatan. Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology, 4(2): 35-42.

Kurniasih, T., Utomo, N.B.P., Azwar, Z.I., Mulyasari, M., Melati, I. (2013). Perbaikan kualitas pakan dan kinerja pertumbuhan ikan nila dengan penambahan enzim protease bakteri pada pakan formulasi. Jurnal Riset Akuakultur, 8(1): 87-96.

Kusumadjaja, A.P., Dewi, R.P. (2005). Penentuan kondisi optimum enzim papain dari pepaya burung varietas jawa (Carica papaya). Indo. J. Chem., 5(2): 147-151.

Mulia, D.S., Yulyanti, E., Maryanto, H., Purbamartono, C. (2015). Peningkatan kualitas ampas tahu sebagai bahan baku pakan ikan dengan fermentasi Rhizopus oligosporus. Sainteks, 12(1).

Pamungkas, W. (2012). Penggunaan enzim cairan rumen sebagai alternatif untuk mendukung pemanfaatan bahan baku pakan ikan lokal. Media Akuakultur, 7(1): 32-38.

Pantaya, D., Nahrowi, L.A., Sofyan, S. (2003). Penambahan enzim cairan rumen pada pakan berbasis wheat pollard dengan proses pengolahan steam pelleting pada performans broiler. Media Kedokteran Hewan, 21(1): 35-38.

Permata, D.A., Ismanto, S.D., Asben, A. (2019). Pemanfaatan enzim papain dalam pembuatan pakan ikan lele serta pengolahan nugget ikan lele. Warta Pengabdian Andalas, 26(1): 62-68.

Poedjiadi, A., Supriyatin. (2006). Dasar-dasar biokimia. UI- Press. Jakarta.

Putri, S.K. (2012). Penambahan enzim bromelin untuk meningkatkan pemanfaatan protein pakan dan pertumbuhan benih nila larasati (Oreochromis niloticus Var). Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology, 1(1): 63-76.

Rachmawati, D., Samidjan, I. (2014). Penambahan fitase dalam pakan pakan buatan sebagai upaya peningkatan kecernaan, laju pertumbuhan spesifik dan kelulushidupan benih ikan nila (Oreochromis niloticus). Jurnal Saintek Perikanan, 10(1): 48-55

Rochmawati, A.M. (2016). Penambahan enzim fitase pada pakan buatan terhadap nilai kecernaan protein dan energi ikan baung (Mystus nemurus) dengan teknik pembedahan. Universitas Airlangga.

Samtiya, M., Rotimi, R.E., Dhewa, T. (2020). Plant food anti-nutritional factors and their reduction strategies: an overview. Food Production, Processing and Nutrition, 2:6

Siregar, M., Adelina, A., Suharman, I. (2020). Pemanfaatan tepung daun kayu apu (Pistia stratiotes) yang difermentasi Trichoderma harzianum dalam pakan untuk pertumbuhan benih ikan patin siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus). Jurnal Akuakultur SEBATIN, 1(1): 41-50.

Sundu, S., Baharuddin, B., Basri, M. (2010). Evaluation of tofu waste treated with fermentation and enzyme supplementation in broiler chickens. The 5th International Seminar on Tropical Animal Production Community Empowerment and Tropical Animal Industry October 19-22, 2010, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. 346-349

Suryaningrum, L.H., Samsudin, R. (2019). Potensi enzim selulase dalam mendegradasi material lignoselulosa sebagai bahan pakan ikan. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Hasil Riset Pengolahan Produk dan Bioteknologi KP Tahun 2018

Wardani, P.K., Al Arif, M.A., Arif, M. (2014). Pemberian beberapa dosis enzim pada pakan komersil terhadap kandungan serat kasar, bahan organik, dan BETN. Journal of Aquaculture Fish Health, 3(1).

Wirahadikusumah, M. (2001). Biokimia: protein, enzim, dan asam nukleat. Bandung: Penerbit ITB.

Winantu, N.P. (2018). Pengaruh Fermentasi Onggok Menggunakan Aspergillus niger terhadap Kandungan Nutrien dan HCN. Sarjana thesis, Universitas Brawijaya.

Wizna, W., Abbas, H., Rizal, Y., Dharma, A., Kompiang, I.P. (2009). Improving the quality of tapioca By-Products (Onggok) as poultry feed through fermentation by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8(10): 1636-1640.

Zulaeha, S., Rachmawati, D., Samidjan, I. (2015). Pengaruh penambahan enzim fitase pada pakan buatan terhadap efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan, dan pertumbuhan ikan kerapu bebek (Cromileptes altivelis). Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology, 4(4): 35-42


Article Metrics

Abstract view : 46 times
PDF - 47 times

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31258/jpk.29.1.107-112

Copyright (c) 2024 Kiki Haetami, Abun Abun

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.


Gedung Marine Center Lt 2. Fakultas Perikanan dan Kelautan Universitas Riau

 Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.